Long Non-Coding RNA Analysis
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) molecules are a diverse class of RNAs that are generally defined as being longer than 200 nucleotides and lacking protein coding potential1. While the importance of lncRNAs was initially overlooked, studies now exist that indicate lncRNAs play roles in many cellular processes to promote normal function and cell viability2,3. Furthermore, regulatory lncRNAs affect the expression of other genes at the level of transcription, post-transcription, or translation4. LncRNAs can regulate gene function by binding DNA5, and proteins6. Some regulatory lncRNAs are expressed only in certain stages of organismal development, including during the determination of cell fate and early embryonic development7,8. The development and progression of many diseases now appears to include lncRNA molecules; to date, over 300 lncRNAs are implicated in over 200 diseases9.
Ocean Ridge Biosciences’ RNA sequencing workflow can easily be adjusted to incorporate lncRNA analysis. Interrogation can include information on the types (antisense, intergenic, overlapping, intronic, bidirectional, and processed), chromosomal locations, description of the biological functions and disease associations of lncRNA. Reports can also include protein-lncRNA interactions and genomic variations in lncRNA loci.
ORB’s lncRNA Analysis Pipeline
ORB’s lncRNA workflow (Figure 2) starts with alignment of passed-filter sequencing reads to the species-specific sequences from the RNAcentral database using Bowtie 2. Reads aligning to each lncRNA are counted using BEDtools. For all ncRNAs having at least one aligned read, annotations are added using RNAcentral’s RESTful API. An important step in analyzing RNA sequencing data is filtering out transcripts that are not reliably expressed. ORB's lncRNA pipeline, only retains ncRNAs with more than 50 mapped reads in at least 25% of samples.
Demonstration of ORB’s lncRNA Expression Analysis
ORB performed full analysis of traditional gene expression as well as ncRNA transcript expression using RNA sequencing data with a mean of 79 million 100 nucleotide paired-end reads (39.5 million reads per direction) generated by an Illumina HiSeq-2000 instrument. This data was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus from a study investigating the human colon cancer HT29 cell line treated with two different conditions of 5-aza-deoxy-cytidine for 5 days in triplicate10. Figure 3 shows the experimental design.
Classification of detectable non-coding RNA in HT29 cells was based on mapping to the RNACentral database which divides non-coding RNA into lncRNA, rRNA, antisense RNA, snoRNA, SRP RNA, snRNA, microRNA, and precursor RNA. LncRNA made up more than half of the detectable non-coding RNAs from this study with 5,329 unique molecules, and rRNA comprised the next largest category with 3,296 (Figure 4). Each remaining category had fewer than 270 detectable ncRNAs. Click here to view an example results table from ORB’s lncRNA analysis.
|Principal Components Analysis performed on RPKM data from 816 significant (FDR <0.1) ncRNA transcripts showed excellent separation of the samples by treatment (Figure 5). Over 100 ncRNAs showed a substantial correlation with the first two principal components (Figure 6-7), which correspond to a measure of the difference between 0µM 5-Aza and 5µM 5-Aza.|
Principal Components Analysis performed on RPKM data from 816 significant (FDR <0.1) ncRNA transcripts showed excellent separation of the samples by treatment (Figure 5). Over 100 ncRNAs showed a substantial correlation with the first two principal components (Figure 6-7), which correspond to a measure of the difference between 0µM 5-Aza and 5µM 5-Aza.
The settings for PCA Analysis were:
- Matrix type - Covariance
- Number of principal components - 3
- Fold change threshold for clusters – 2
- Correlation threshold for clusters – 0.9
- Transcripts to analyze: All 816 genes
- Transcripts number to display: 100 %
|The settings for PCA Analysis were:
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- Shi, X., Sun, M., Liu, H., Yao, Y., & Song, Y. (2013). Long non-coding RNAs: a new frontier in the study of human diseases. Cancer letters, 339(2), 159-166.
- Xu X, Zhang Y, Williams J, Antoniou E, McCombie WR, Wu S, Zhu W, Davidson NO, Denoya P, Li E (2013) Parallel comparison of Illumina RNA-Seq and Affymetrix microarray platforms on transcriptomic profiles generated from 5-aza-deoxy-cytidine treated HT-29 colon cancer cells and simulated datasets. BMC Bioinformatics 14 (Suppl 9):S1. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-S9-S1.